Academic Services

Academic Services

Proofreading and Editing

We improve overall readability, eliminate all language errors, and polish up your manuscript before publication. We adhere to the proofreading and editing guidelines defined by the Chartered Institute of Editing and Proofreading (CIEP). Our proofreading/editing process involves:

  • Proofreading: adjusting spelling, grammar/syntax, punctuation, capitalization, as well as other surface-level technical errors
  • Editing: improving readability, including sentence structure, coherency/flow, conciseness/clarity, and academic wording/tone
  • Commenting: the editor occasionally adds comments to highlight recommendations for possible improvements in the work

The tracked changes version and a clean version are sent back to you, which allows you to go through all of the changes made to the content. A final rigorous quality-assurance inspection is then done by another editor to ensure the final amended manuscript is error-free, concise and has improved readability.

proofreading and editing


Involves correcting all typographical and spelling errors throughout the text.


Involves adjusting all grammatical and syntax mistakes.


Involves ensuring appropriate use of punctuation and commas.

Structure & Clarity

Involves improving sentence structure and ensuring conciseness and clarity across the text.

Coherency & Flow of Ideas

Involves checking sentence- and paragraph-level coherency and flow of ideas.

Academic Tone

Involves enhancing academic wording and key technical terms.

Edited Samples

Social Sciences 1

Social Sciences

Social Sciences 2

Social Sciences

Non-Academic 1


Medicine 1


Medicine 2


Medicine 3


Management 1


Linguistics 1


Linguistics 2


Law 1


Engineering 1


Engineering 2


Engineering 3


Engineering 4


Engineering 5


Education 1


Computer Science 1

Computer Science

Chemistry 1


Chemistry 2


Chemistry 3


Biology 1


Biology 2


Artificial Intelligence 1

Artificial Intelligence

Banking 1


Citations and References Adjustment

This involves checking and adjusting the parenthetical and narrative in-text citations based on a specific format. Some examples of prominent citation styles are APA, MLA, Chicago, Turabian, and IEEE.

We also adjust the list of references (i.e. bibliography) at the end of the manuscript, and make sure citations are included in the references list, and reference listings are cited in the main body of text.

Any mismatches or unmapped citations:reference listings are highlighted and the corresponding reference listing is appended to the references list.

citations and references adjustment

Style Format Adjustment

This involves adjusting the manuscript based on the style guide or style template (in MS Word format) provided by the publishing journal or university. This applies to journal papers, conference proceedings and theses/dissertations.

Several document elements are adjusted such as the front matter, font style and size, headers, section layout/structure, line spacing, margins, paragraph indentation, citation/references style, figures, tables and equations, among others.

These manuscript format is adjusted based on the style guide instructions and recommendations. A good example of a general style guide is the APA Style Seventh Edition.

style formatting


Our editors are able to paraphrase, restructure and rewrite parts of the body text that have a high similarity index, effectively decreasing it to an acceptable level by the journal.

This involves sentence restructuring, changing tense from passive to active voice and vice versa, exchanging key terms with their synonyms, combining simple sentences, splitting up complex sentences, re-arranging lists, and other strategies. The the original meaning of each sentence is preserved after paraphrasing.

Please note that this is for self-authored content that is slightly over the similarity index threshold.


Paraphrased Samples

Paraphrased 1

Paraphrased 1

Paraphrased 2

Paraphrased 2

Paraphrased 3

Paraphrased 3

Turnitin Report

This involves creating an official Turnitin report for your manuscript content. This shows the similarity index level of the manuscript, and provides a detailed description of the parts of the content that are similar to already-published work.

This is requested by universities before submission, oftentimes as a recent version that is submitted along with the final manuscript.

This can be sent back to you within 24 hours from the time you request it.


Turnitin report

Language Translation

This involves manual translation of any source language to any target language by an experienced translator. We translate academic work and corporate/business material.

Proofreading in the target language is also carried out to make sure that the final translated document is easily readable, clear and free from any language errors.

The languages available depend on the availability of a translator with a background in that particular language.

language translation